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You can find a list of tools to work under Windows 10 on the Software equivalents page.
If you need to test some functionalities of Windows on your machine, Microsoft delivers official evaluation VMs valid for 2 months.
If you want to automate things under Windows there is the PowerShell language you can use, that offers strong proximity with the system.
If you want to have a Linux development environment under Windows, you can use the Bash for Windows (WSL), or set a Vagrant configuration, that works with VirtualBox and offers full VM configuration of any Linux distribution.
# Chocolatey install PS(Admin) > Set-ExecutionPolicy Bypass -Scope Process -Force; iex ((New-Object System.Net.WebClient).DownloadString('https://chocolatey.org/install.ps1')) # Scoop install (more "unix-flavored") PS(Admin) > Set-ExecutionPolicy Bypass -Scope Process -Force; iex ((New-Object System.Net.WebClient).DownloadString('https://get.scoop.sh'))
PS(Admin) > choco install -y git notepadplusplus cmder vscode vagrant virtualbox 7zip FoxitReader docker PS(Admin) > scoop install wget curl sudo ruby python # If you installed Git, you can access Bash from anywhere in Powershell PS > & 'C:\Program Files\Git\bin\sh.exe'